High blood sugar levels can seriously damage parts of your body, including your feet and your eyes. These are called diabetes complications. But you can take action to prevent or delay many of these side effects of diabetes.
You might hear your healthcare team talk about two types of diabetes complications: serious ones that build up over time called chronic complications and ones that can happen at any time called acute complications.
These are long-term problems that can develop gradually, and can lead to serious damage if they go unchecked and untreated.
- Eye problems (retinopathy):
Some people with diabetes develop an eye disease called diabetic retinopathy which can affect their eyesight. If retinopathy is picked up usually from an eye screening test, it can be treated, and sight loss prevented.
- Foot problems
Diabetes foot problems are serious and can lead to amputation if untreated. Nerve damage can affect the feeling in your feet and raised blood sugar can damage the circulation, making it slower for sores and cuts to heal. That is why it is important to tell your GP if you notice any change in how your feet look or feel.
- Heart attack and stroke
When you have diabetes, high blood sugar for a period can damage your blood vessels. This can sometimes lead to heart attacks and strokes.
- Kidney problems(nephropathy):
Diabetes can cause damage to your kidneys over a long period of time making it harder to clear extra fluid and waste from your body. This is caused by high blood sugar levels and high blood pressure. It is known as diabetic nephropathy or kidney disease.
- Nerve damage (neuropathy)
Some people with diabetes may develop nerve damage caused by complications of high blood sugar levels. This can make it harder for the nerves to carry messages between the brain and every part of our body so it can affect how we see, hear, feel and move.
- Gum disease and other mouth problems
Too much sugar in your blood can lead to more sugar in your saliva. This brings bacteria that produce acid which attacks your tooth enamel and damages your gums. The blood vessels in your gums can also become damaged, making gums more likely to get infected.
- Related conditions, like cancer
If you have diabetes, you are more at risk of developing certain cancers. And some cancer treatments can affect your diabetes and make it harder to control your blood sugar.
- Sexual problems in women
Damage to blood vessels and nerves can restrict the amount of blood flowing to your sexual organs so you can lose some sensation. If you have high blood sugar, you are also more likely to get thrush or a urinary tract infection.
- Sexual problems in men
The amount of blood flowing to your sexual organs can be restricted which may cause you to have difficulty getting aroused. It may lead to erectile dysfunction, sometimes called impotence.
These can happen at any time and may lead to chronic, or long-term, complications.
- Hypos – when your blood sugars are too low
- Hypers– when your blood sugars are too high
- Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic State (HHS)– is a life-threatening emergency that only happens in people with type 2 diabetes. It is brought on by severe dehydration and very high blood sugars.
- Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) – is a life-threatening emergency where the lack of insulin and high blood sugars leads to a build-up of ketones.
MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES
Keeping your HbA1c within the target range set by your healthcare team is really important for reducing your risk of complications. If your blood sugar levels are rising, talk to your doctor. Your treatment may need to change to get your HbA1c back on target to avoid the complications of high blood sugar.
. Stop smoking
Smoking makes it harder for blood to flow around your body to places like your heart and your feet. If you smoke, then stopping is a key part of reducing your chances of complications. Again, your GP and diabetes team will be able to help you quit.
· Eat more healthily
Making healthier food choices can help you to lose weight, bring down your HbA1c, manage your blood pressure and help you reduce the fats in your blood like cholesterol. Ask to see a dietitian if you would like extra help to eat healthily.
· Keep active
Doing more physical activity helps reduce your chance of getting complications. If you struggle to get about, there are still ways you can keep active.
· Go to all of your appointments
Everyone with diabetes is entitled to a series of tests and checks each year to monitor their diabetes, look out for any problems and see if any further support is needed. Making sure you get all of them will mean you know how you’re doing and about your type 1 and type 2 diabetes health risks.
If you have chronic complications
When you have one chronic complication, you are much more at risk of developing other complications of diabetes. So if your blood vessels are damaged in your feet, for example, the damage can happen to other parts of your body like your kidneys and heart too. This means you need to stay on top of your health checks and blood sugar levels when you are managing other problems.