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Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is divided into 5 stages (stage 1 to 5) base on the how well Kidney filters waste and fluids your blood. Technically known as Glomerulus Filtration Rate (GFR).  In the early stages of kidney disease (stages 1 to 3), you may not have any symptoms because the kidneys are able to compensate the damage in early stages. As the stages goes up (from stage 3 to 5), the kidney disease gets worse and your kidneys functions deteriorate.


If the kidneys do not work well as it should, that is, to filter waste and extra fluid out of your blood, the wastes and fluids accumulate in your body and begin to cause health problems and you may notice the following symptoms:

  • Swelling of the legs, ankles, and feet 
  • Dry, Itchy skin
  • Muscle cramps
  • Feeling weak and tired 
  • Feeling sick to your stomach or throwing up 
  • Urinating more or less than normal 
  • Foamy, frothy, or bubbly-looking urine, which means there is protein in your urine (Proteins are usually not found in urine of a normal functioning kidneys).
  • Shortness of breath which is caused by fluid accumulation in the lungs.

Note: Signs and symptoms of kidney disease are often nonspecific. This means they can also be caused by other illnesses. Because your kidneys are able to make up for lost function, you might not develop signs and symptoms until irreversible damage has occurred.

Complications of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

Your kidneys help your whole body work properly. When you have CKD and your kidneys are not working as well as they should, it can cause other health problems, such as:

  • Anaemia 
  • High phosphorus and high calcium, can cause bone disease and increase bone fracture
  • High potassium, which can harm your heart
  • Fluid build up in the body, which could lead to swelling in your arms and legs, high blood pressure, or fluid in your lungs (pulmonary oedema)
  • Irreversible damage to your kidneys (end-stage kidney disease), eventually requiring either dialysis or a kidney transplant for survival

Even before any signs and symptoms appear, a routine blood test (Kidney Function Test + eGFR and Urine Routine test) can indicate that you might in the early stages of Chronic Kidney Disease. The earlier it is detected, the easier it is to treat and managed.  Book for a Kidney and a urine test here.


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